Please be aware of differences in the presented data due to your location! All data used for the current version of the "material pyramid" is available data from EPDs assumed valid in Northern Europe and/or Scandinavia. There can be relevant differences to the data that is valid at your location.
om pyramiden
about the pyramid
Byggeriets Materialepyramide – en kort forklaring

I Danmark kender alle madpyramiden. Den fortæller os om forholdet mellem vores indtag af fødevarer og vores sundhed; Hvad vi kan spise i store mængder, og hvad skal vi spise mindre af?

Med udgangspunkt i madpyramidens grafiske sprog, har vi på Center for Industriel Arkitektur (CINARK), ved det Kongelige Akademi udviklet en digital udgave af Byggeriets Materialepyramide, som vi publicerede som plakat i 2019.

Den digitaliserede udgave af Byggeriets Materialepyramide gør det muligt at sammenligne fx CO2 aftryk mellem forskellige kategorier af materialer eller mellem materialetyper inden for samme kategori. Den gør det også muligt at få vist forskellige slags miljøpåvirkninger på tværs af de forskellige materialer. Den tilbyder således et konkret, interaktivt beregningsværktøj og man åbner samtidig op for dialog om dybere studier af materialernes placering i pyramiden og deres senere indplacering ved projektering. Målet er at den giver en enkel måde at få et hurtigt overblik over de enkelte byggematerialers relative bæredygtighed.

Baseret på Miljødeklarationer (EPD) viser Byggeriets Materialepyramide miljøpåvirkningen for en række relevante byggematerialer. Her har vi valgt at fokusere på de indledende faser i byggeriet, dvs. indtil materialet er i hånden (Livscyklusfaser A1-A3).

Med andre ord; Byggeriets Materialepyramide er en måde at synliggøre den miljøpåvirkning, der er forbundet med materialers produktion. Materialets levetid kan derefter blive håndteret som et teknisk designparameter, hvor der arbejdes med detaljer i konstruktionen i forhold til hvor længe bygningen skal holde.

I den sammenhæng, er det arkitekters ansvar at sikre, at materialernes levetid ikke afhænger af den samlede sammensætning af bygningskomponenten og derfor defineret af det dårligst udførte materiale eller konstruktion. Det har således været ambitionen, at omgå de problematiske standardantagelser, der styrer resultatet af livscyklusvurderinger (LCA).

Vi har fået mange positive og nysgerrige henvendelser fra almindelige håndværkere til undervisere fra erhvervsskoler, praktiserende arkitekter og lægfolk. Vi tror på, at Byggeriets Materialepyramide ligesom madpyramiden kan blive en afgørende rettesnor og pædagogisk guide til alle danskerne, når de skal træffe de rigtige miljøvalg, når de handler i byggemarkedet, køber hus, bygger om eller bare ønsker mere viden på området.

Målgruppen er projekterende arkitekter, konstruktører og rådgivere, samt studerende ved uddannelser rettet mod byggeriet. Desuden, kan den digitale udgave af Byggeriets Materialepyramide anvendes til bredere formidling til bygherre, og til oplysningskampagner som led i byggeriets grønne omstilling.

Projektgruppen bag den digitaliserede materialepyramide er senior- og juniorforskere ved CINARK, samt Jan Schipull Kauschen fra Vandkunsten.
Projektet er finansieret med støtte fra Boligfonden Kuben.



Miljøpåvirkningskategorier anvendt i pyramiden:
Potentielle skader for miljøet, økosystemer og helbredet kan kortlægges ved udførelsen af såkaldte livscyklusvurderinger - LCA. Da type og dimesion af de potentielle skader er grundlæggende forskellige er der udviklet metoder til opgørelsen af skader i mijljøpåvirkningskategorier. Der er et stort antal miljøpåvirkningskategorier udover de 5 i pyramiden anvendte, som dog er det mest gængse i bygningsrelaterede LCA'er. Kategorierne som er relevante for byggeriet er angivet i den europæsike standard CEN/TC350.

Global warming Potential – Global Opvarmning (GWP):
Global Opvarming bliver forårsaget af drivhusgasser, heriblandt den kemiske stofforbindelse CO2. GWP bliver regnet i CO2-ækvivalenter (CO2eq), hvilket vil sige at CO2, bruges som referencestof og indikatorenhed. Anvendelsen af "ækvivalenter" er gennemgående for alle miljøpåvirkninger, i det at der findes mange forskellige stofforbindelser som kan forårsage den samme skade for miljøet, økosystemer eller sundheden, men i forskellige størrelsesordner. F.eks. forårsager 1kg methan den samme potentielle skade som ca. 25kg CO2 når udledt til atmosfæren.
GWP er også det, som man omtaler ”carbon footprint” i forbindelse med produkter.

Ozone Depletion Potential - Ozonlagsnedbrydning (ODP):
ODP er nedbrydningspotentialet af ozonlaget. Her er der dermed inkluderet de kemiske forbindelser som har en indvirkning på nedbrydning af ozonlaget. Nedbrydning af ozonlaget medfører at intensiteten på UV-strålingen stiger og skader dermed planter og dyrearter. Som indikatoerenhed for ODP anvendes ækvivalenter af det kemiske stof freon (R-11eq).

Photochemical Ozone Creation Potentials – Fotokemisk Ozondannelse (POCP):
Under denne kategori beskrives dannelsen af fotokemisk smog. Ozon kan i høje koncentrationer påvirke både helbred hos mennesker og naturen og påvirke især vejrtrækning. POCP måles i ethen-ækvivalenter (C2H4eq) som indikatorenhed. Miljøpåvirkningen stammer blandt andet meget fra flygtige organiske forbindelser (VOC), som kan forekomme i produktion og afbrænding af plastik og maling.

Acidification Potential - Forsuring (AP):
AP beskriver potentielle påvirkninger af syrer som bliver udledt til atmosfæren som gasform eller i jord og vand som substans. Forsuring kan medføre skader på økosystemet og især planter. I 1980'erne var der tit tale om "sur regn". Denne påvirkningskategori måles i indikatorenheden svovldioxid-ækvivalenter (SO2).

Eutrophication Potential - Næringssaltbelastning (EP):
EP betegner en for høj belastning med næringssalte som potentielt kan skade miljøet. Overernæring i jorden kan påvirke vegetationen og i sidste ende resultere i dens død, miljøpåvirkningen bliver også kadlt "ørkendannelse". Overernæring kan også have en modsat effekt, hvor det skaber optimale forhold for plantevækst, så det ender med planterne, udkonkurrerer andre levende organismer. Dette kan for eksempel ske i hav og søer, hvor det kan resultere i algevækst, som kan skade biodiversiteten. EP har fosfat som referencestof og beregnes i fosfat-ækvivalenter (PO4eq).

Du kan læse mere om miljøpåvirkninger og LCA indenfor byggeriet i SBi/BUILDs rapport "Bygningens Livscyklus" (SBI2015:09) og rapport "Klimapåvirkning fra 60 bygninger" (SBI2020:04) Also, you can read about how we have tested the ideas behind the Construction Material Pyramid in the book: “Circular Construction – Architecture, Materials, Tectonics” (CINARK2019)


Datagrundlaget:
Data anvendt i pyramiden stammer fra offentligt tilgængelige EPD'er som normalt materialeproducenter, materialeleverandører eller brancheorganistationer står for. EPD står for "Environmental Product Declaration" og er dermed en varedeklaration som beskriver materialets eller produktets potentielle miljøpåvirkninger. Selve processen omkring tilblivelsen af EPD'er er standardiseret, og det er LCA-specialister som kan udarbejde disse.
EPD'er bliver tit gjort tilgænglige i databaser eller over producenternes hjemmesider, det er også her vi har rekvireret dem til vores projekt.
Der er anvendt EPD'er fra Danmark så vidt muligt, desuden er den tyske database Ökobau.dat belvet anvendt, samt EPD Norge som har et omfattende register af EPD'er for byggematerialer og byggevarer.
Ved "dobbeltklik" på et materiale vises alle data vi har benyttet i detaljer, herunder link til EPD eller databasen for LCA-datasettet, samt angivelse af dato for datagrundlagets gyldighed.


Livscyklusfaser A1-3:
Fra EPD'erne har vi anvendt data for livscyklusfaser A1 til A3 (jf. EN15978), dette svarer til materialeudvinding frem til produktionen ("cradle-to-gate"). Alle videre faser som forekommer i en livscyklusanalyse er udeladt, herunder transport til byggepladsen og indbygning (A4/5), anvendelse og udskiftning (B4/6), bortskaffelse (C3/4) og eventuel genbrug (D). Årsagen hertil er at materialepyramiden ikke er et værktøj til at regne LCA'er og alle faser udover A1-3 er afhængigt af det enkelte projekt og vurdering der foretages. Hertil skal anvendes professionelt software som f.eks. BUILDs LCAByg (www.lcabyg.dk)
Angivelsen af livscyklusfaser A1-3 er producentens ansvar jf. standarden. Et godt datagrundlag er dermed sikret og evtl usikkerheder, som i en LCA skal håndteres, er dermed ikke relevant for tal angivet i materialepyramiden.


Udvælgelse af materialer:
Udvalget af materialer til pyramiden er sket baseret på en del interviews med fagpersoner indenfor byggeri, som har udmøntet sig i en liste med materialer som anvendes mest i dansk byggeri. Det er desuden forsøgt at holde materialerne på et generisk niveau for ikke at udpege et bestemt produkt indenfor en materialegruppe. Det er klart at der kan forekommer store variationer i materialernes miljøpåvirkninger alt efter hvem producenter er og/eller hvor og hvordan produktet bliver fremstillet. For at komme dette imøde er der anvendt data fra materialer og produkter som har en stor markedsandel for netop den givne type materiale. Hvis muligt har vi anvendt "branchedata", dvs. informationer som er stillet til rådighed af brancheorganisationer.

Vi kan desværre ikke garantere for rigtigheden af de benyttede data eller data der henvises til, samt at vi ikke påtager os et ansvar for evt. fejl eller undladelser på hjemmesiden.


Hvis du vil bidrage
Den digitale udgave af materialepyramiden er fleksibel og skal ændre sig over tid. Vi vil gerne tilføje flere materialer og der er mange ideér på tegnebordet til flere lag og flere funktioner. Hvis du gerne vil støtte projektet i den ene eller anden form, modtager vi med glæde en email fra dig!
Hvis du har et materiale som synes mangler i pyramiden, send gerne en EPD til os og evtl også en materialeprøve for at vi kan tage billeder af den. Har du andre gode idéer eller gerne vil anvende pyramiden i et skoleprojekt, skriv til os på: info@materialepyramiden.dk


God fornøjelse med Byggeriets Materialepyramide!


Skal Materialepyramiden hænge på din væg? Materialepyramiden kan købes som plakat i Arkitektforeningens Butik [link]
The Construction Material Pyramid – A Brief Explanation

In Denmark, everyone knows the food pyramid. It tells us about the relationship between our food intake and our health. What we can eat in large quantities and what should we eat less of.

Based on the food pyramid’s graphical language, we at the Centre for Industrialised Architecture (CINARK) at the Royal Danish Academy have developed a digital version of the Construction Material Pyramid, which we published as a poster in 2019.

The digital version of the Construction Material Pyramid makes it possible to compare, for example, CO2 footprints between different categories of materials or between material types within the same category. It also makes it possible to view different kinds of environmental impacts across the different materials. It thus offers a tangible, interactive calculation tool and at the same time opens up a dialogue about more detailed studies of the materials’ position in the pyramid and later their place in the project design. The goal is that it provides a simple way to gain a quick overview of the relative sustainability of the individual building materials.

Based on Environmental Product Declarations (EPD), the Construction Material Pyramid shows the environmental impact of a number of relevant building materials. Here, we have chosen to focus on the initial phases of construction, i.e. until the material is on site (life cycle phases A1–A3).

In other words, the Construction Material Pyramid is a way of visualising the environmental impact associated with the production of materials. The service life of the material can then be handled as a technical design parameter, where work is carried out on the details of the construction in relation to how long the building should last.

In this context, it is the responsibility of architects to ensure that the materials’ service life does not depend on the overall composition of the building component and therefore defined by the worst-executed material or construction. It has thus been the ambition to bypass the problematic standard assumptions that govern the outcome of life cycle assessments (LCA).

We have received many positive and curious enquiries from ordinary craftsmen to teachers at vocational schools, practicing architects and lay people. We believe that the Construction Material Pyramid, like the food pyramid, can be a crucial guideline and educational guide for all when they have to make the right environmental choices when doing business in the construction market, buying a house, rebuilding, or just wanting more knowledge about the field.

The target group is project architects, designers, and consultants, as well as students in educations aimed at construction. In addition, the digital version of the Construction Material Pyramid can be used for wider dissemination to developers and for information campaigns as part of the construction industry’s green transition.

The project group behind the digitised material pyramid are senior and junior researchers at CINARK, as well as Jan Schipull Kauschen from Vandkunsten. The project is financed with support from Boligfonden Kuben.



Environmental Impact Categories Used in the Pyramid
Potential damage to the environment, ecosystems, and health can be mapped when performing so-called life cycle assessments (LCAs). Since the type and dimension of the potential damage are fundamentally different, methods have been developed for the calculation of damage in environmental impact categories. There are a large number of environmental impact categories in addition to the five used in the pyramid, which are, however, the most common in building-related LCAs. The categories relevant for the construction industry are specified in the European standard CEN/TC350.

Global warming Potential (GWP):
Global warming is caused by greenhouse gases, including the chemical substance CO2. GWP is calculated in CO2 equivalents (CO2eq), which means that CO2 is used as a reference substance and indicator unit. The use of “equivalents” is common to all environmental impacts, in that there are many different substances that can cause the same damage to the environment, ecosystems, or health, but in different orders of magnitude. For example, 1 kg of methane causes the same potential damage as approximately 25 kg of CO2 when emitted into the atmosphere. GWP is also what is referred to as the “carbon footprint” in connection with products.

Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP):
ODP is the depletion potential of the ozone layer. Thus, this includes the chemical compounds that have an effect on the depletion of the ozone layer. Degradation of the ozone layer means that the intensity of UV radiation increases and therefore damages plants and animal species. As an indicator unit for ODP, equivalents of the chemical substance freon (R-11eq) are used.

Photochemical Ozone Creation Potentials (POCP):
Under this category, the formation of photochemical smog is described. In high concentrations, ozone can affect the health of both humans and nature, and can especially affect breathing. POCP is measured using ethylene equivalents (C2H4eq) as an indicator unit. The environmental impact stems in large part from volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which can occur in the production and incineration of plastics and paints.

Acidification Potential (AP):
AP describes potential influences of acids that are emitted into the atmosphere in a gaseous form or in the soil and water as a substance. Acidification can cause damage to the ecosystem and especially plants. In the 1980s, there was often talk of “acid rain”. This impact category is measured using the indicator unit sulphur dioxide equivalents (SO2 eq).

Eutrophication Potential (EP):
EP denotes an excessive load of nutrients that can potentially harm the environment. Over-fertilisation of the soil can affect the vegetation and eventually result in its death; the environmental impact is also called “desertification”. Over-fertilisation can also have the opposite effect, creating optimal conditions for plant growth so that it ends up with the plants outcompeting other living organisms. This can happen, for example, in oceans and lakes, where it can result in algae growth, which can damage the biodiversity. EP has phosphate as reference substance and is calculated in phosphate equivalents (PO4eq).

You can read more about environmental impacts and LCA within the construction industry in SBi/BUILD’s report “Bygningens Livscyklus” [The Building’s Life Cycle] (SBI2015:09) and the report “Klimapåvirkning fra 60 bygninger” [Climate Impact from 60 Buildings] (SBI2020:04).
Also, you can read about how we have tested the ideas behind the Construction Material Pyramid in the book: “Circular Construction – Architecture, Materials, Tectonics” (CINARK2019)


Data Used
Data used in the pyramid comes from publicly available EPDs that material producers, material suppliers, or industry organisations are normally responsible for. EPD stands for “Environmental Product Declaration” and is thus a product declaration that describes the material or product’s potential environmental impacts. The actual process for creating EPDs is standardised, and LCA specialists are able to produce them.
EPDs are often made available in databases or via manufacturers’ websites, and this is also where we have gathered them from for our project. EPDs from Denmark have been used as far as possible; in addition, the German database Ökobau.dat has been used, as well as EPD’s from the Norwegian EPD Foundation, which has an extensive register of EPDs for building materials and products.
By “double-clicking” on a material, all the data we have used is displayed in detail, including a link to the EPD or the database for the LCA dataset, as well as the date of the data’s validity.


Life Cycle Phases A1–A3
From the EPDs, we have used data for life cycle phases A1 to A3 (cf. EN15978); this corresponds to material extraction up to production (“cradle-to-gate”). All further phases that occur in a life cycle analysis are excluded, including transport to the construction site and installation (A4/5), use and replacement (B4/6), disposal (C3/4), and potential recycling (D). The reason for this is that the material pyramid is not a tool for calculating LCAs, and all phases in addition to A1–A3 depend on the individual project and assessment made. For this, professional software such as BUILD’s LCAByg (www.lcabyg.dk) must be used.
The reporting and updating of life cycle phases A1–A3 is the manufacturer’s responsibility, cf. the standard. Good data is thus ensured, and potential uncertainties that must be dealt with in an LCA are therefore not relevant for figures given in the material pyramid.


Selection of Materials
The selection of materials for the pyramid has been based on a number of interviews with professionals in construction, which has resulted in a list of the materials used most in Danish construction. Attempts have also been made to keep the materials at a generic level so as not to single out a specific product within a material group. It is clear that there can be large variations in the materials’ environmental impacts depending on who the producers are and/or where and how the product is manufactured. To deal with this, data has been used from materials and products that have a large market share for the given type of material. If possible, we have used “industry data”, i.e. information provided by industry associations.

Unfortunately, we cannot guarantee the accuracy of the data used or the data that is referred to, and we do not assume any responsibility for any errors or omissions on the website.


If You Want to Contribute
The digital version of the material pyramid is flexible and will change over time. We would like to add more materials, and there are many ideas on the drawing board for more layers and more features. If you would like to support the project in one form or another, we are happy to receive an e-mail from you!
If you have a material that you think is missing from the pyramid, feel free to send us an EPD and, if possible, a material sample so that we can take pictures of it. If you have other good ideas or would like to use the pyramid in a school project, then please write to us at: info@materialepyramiden.dk


Have Fun with the Construction Material Pyramid!


Do you want to hang the Material Pyramid hanging up on your wall? You can buy a poster of the material pyramid at the Danish Association of Architects’ Store [link]
THE CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL PYRAMID
TÆNK PÅ MÆNGDER
DETALJEN ER AFGØRENDE
HUSK LEVETIDER
GENBRUG ELLER AFFALD?
TÆNK OVER TRANSPORT
THINK ABOUT AMOUNTS
THE DETAIL IS CRUCIAL
REMEMBER SERVICE LIFE
REUSE OR WASTE?
THINK ABOUT TRANSPORT
| GWP [kg CO2 eq / kg]
| modul A1-A3
| module A1-A3
↓ scroll ned til "BEREGNEREN"
↓ scroll down to "CALCULATOR"
vælg materialer i pyramiden (klik) for at medtage dem i beregneren.
Dobbelt-klik på et materiale for at se baggrundsdata.
select materials in the pyramid (click) to include them in the calculator.
See the data used for the materials by double-clicking on the material.
26578.0
2.74
7.49E+2
7.72E-2
5.86E+3
6.04E-1
6.60E+3
6.80E-1
6.02E+4
6.21E+0
13.29
3.74E-1
2.93E+0
3.01E+1
3.30E+0
13.29
3.74E-1
2.93E+0
3.01E+1
3.30E+0
pandeplade
Roof panel (steel)
2851.0
2.04
3.25E+5
2.32E+2
1.58E+3
1.13E+0
2.49E+3
1.78E+0
1.91E+4
1.37E+1
0.36
4.06E+1
1.97E-1
2.39E+0
3.11E-1
maling, mat
Paint, matte
366.1
0.30
2.56E+2
2.09E-1
1.20E-1
9.78E-5
7.73E+1
6.31E-2
1.21E+3
9.91E-1
12.82
8.96E+0
4.19E-3
4.25E+1
2.70E+0
betontagsten
Concrete roof tiles
-535.0
-0.95
4.75E+4
8.42E+1
2.66E+2
4.72E-1
4.76E+2
8.44E-1
1.80E+3
3.19E+0
Parketgulv, 14mm
Parquet floor, 14 mm
-669.0
-0.93
5.80E+0
8.06E-3
3.78E+2
5.25E-1
4.84E+2
6.72E-1
1.28E+3
1.78E+0
MDF
MDF
138.0
0.24
1.46E+0
2.54E-3
1.32E+1
2.30E-2
2.12E+1
3.69E-2
1.97E+2
3.43E-1
Poroton-tegl
Poroton bricks
-777.5
-1.69
1.01E-2
2.20E-5
9.83E+0
2.14E-2
1.91E+1
4.14E-2
7.99E+1
1.74E-1
-21.77
2.83E-4
2.75E-1
2.24E+0
5.33E-1
Grantræ
Spruce
-1063.0
-1.50
3.51E-3
4.94E-6
3.90E+2
5.50E-1
8.28E+1
1.17E-1
3.59E+2
5.06E-1
-26.58
8.78E-5
9.76E+0
8.97E+0
2.07E+0
Egetræ
Oak tree
-519.0
-1.19
1.97E+4
4.51E+1
7.68E+1
1.76E-1
2.84E+2
6.50E-1
9.10E+2
2.08E+0
-11.42
4.33E+2
1.69E+0
2.00E+1
6.25E+0
modificeret træ
Modified wood
898.2
0.50
9.11E+2
5.06E-1
1.22E+2
6.80E-2
3.89E+2
2.16E-1
1.96E+3
1.09E+0
97.01
9.84E+1
1.32E+1
2.12E+2
4.20E+1
Tegl, rød, dobbeltbrændt
Brick, red, double-fired
565.2
0.31
9.11E+2
5.06E-1
9.34E+1
5.19E-2
3.71E+2
2.06E-1
1.80E+3
9.98E-1
61.04
9.84E+1
1.01E+1
1.94E+2
4.00E+1
Tegl, rød, enkeltbrændt
Brick, red, single-fired
229.0
0.10
2.65E+3
1.20E+0
1.07E+1
4.84E-3
1.15E+2
5.20E-2
3.70E+2
1.67E-1
Beton C20/25
Concrete C20/25
1172.7
3.62
1.09E+1
3.38E-2
1.68E+1
5.20E-2
5.06E+2
1.56E+0
5.53E+3
1.71E+1
Aluvindue
Aluminium frame window
474.1
1.46
2.88E+0
8.91E-3
-1.66E+2
-5.13E-1
2.81E+2
8.69E-1
2.63E+3
8.11E+0
Trævindue
Wood frame window
762.6
2.36
6.01E+0
1.86E-2
-9.50E+1
-2.93E-1
3.72E+2
1.15E+0
3.81E+3
1.18E+1
Træ-Alu vindue
Wood-Aluminium frame window
1694.0
1.41
1.59E-2
1.33E-5
1.61E+2
1.34E-1
2.69E+2
2.24E-1
1.62E+3
1.35E+0
15.25
1.43E-4
1.45E+0
1.46E+1
2.42E+0
Cementbundet spånplade
Cement-bonded particle board
190.6
0.21
1.03E-3
1.14E-6
-9.04E+0
-1.00E-2
3.17E+1
3.53E-2
1.19E+2
1.32E-1
Kalkpuds
Lime render
12209.4
1.71
7.06E+5
9.89E+1
8.78E+2
1.23E-1
1.55E+4
2.17E+0
8.14E+4
1.14E+1
18.31
1.06E+3
1.32E+0
1.22E+2
2.32E+1
24.42
1.41E+3
1.76E+0
1.63E+2
3.10E+1
Zink
Zinc
4095.5
2.48
3.46E+2
2.09E-1
1.13E+3
6.85E-1
1.06E+3
6.41E-1
5.52E+3
3.35E+0
Vinylgulv (PVC)
Vinyl flooring (PVC)
271.5
2.71
1.47E-3
1.47E-5
8.45E+1
8.45E-1
8.48E+1
8.48E-1
4.89E+2
4.89E+0
PP tagmembran (undertag)
PP roofing membrane
-182.9
-1.14
2.21E-3
1.38E-5
1.82E+1
1.14E-1
2.38E+1
1.49E-1
1.24E+2
7.72E-1
Træfiberplade
Wood fibre board
420.1
0.33
3.03E-3
2.41E-6
7.99E+1
6.35E-2
6.20E+1
4.92E-2
3.26E+2
2.59E-1
15.88
1.15E-4
3.02E+0
1.23E+1
2.34E+0
15.88
1.15E-4
3.02E+0
1.23E+1
2.34E+0
Tagsten Tegl
Brick roof tiles
407.8
0.41
4.25E-3
4.25E-6
1.71E+2
1.71E-1
1.30E+2
1.30E-1
1.31E+3
1.31E+0
4.49
4.67E-5
1.88E+0
1.44E+1
1.43E+0
Tagpap V60
Roofing felt V60
22923.1
2.87
4.30E-2
5.38E-6
6.29E+3
7.86E-1
4.59E+3
5.74E-1
4.83E+4
6.04E+0
16.39
3.08E-5
4.49E+0
3.45E+1
3.28E+0
Stål galvaniseret
Galvanised steel
1367.3
0.50
2.02E-2
7.39E-6
8.07E+2
2.96E-1
1.82E+3
6.67E-1
8.00E+3
2.93E+0
9.78
1.44E-4
5.77E+0
5.72E+1
1.30E+1
15.04
2.22E-4
8.88E+0
8.80E+1
2.00E+1
Skifer
Slate
375.1
0.24
8.12E+2
5.24E-1
4.71E+0
3.04E-3
1.32E+2
8.51E-2
5.56E+2
3.59E-1
7.50
1.62E+1
9.42E-2
1.11E+1
2.64E+0
Puds
plaster
169.6
0.21
1.83E+1
2.29E-2
3.09E+1
3.86E-2
6.70E+1
8.38E-2
2.85E+2
3.56E-1
Gipsplade
Gypsum board
83.5
0.07
5.35E+3
4.46E+0
5.05E+2
4.21E-1
2.88E+3
2.40E+0
1.20E+4
1.00E+1
Linoleum
Linoleum
93.2
0.10
6.77E-3
7.52E-6
-3.33E+0
-3.70E-3
3.20E+1
3.56E-2
1.38E+2
1.54E-1
1.86
1.35E-4
-6.67E-2
2.76E+0
6.41E-1
Lerpuds
Clay plaster
-664.0
-1.41
4.25E+3
9.04E+0
3.72E+1
7.91E-2
2.21E+2
4.70E-1
3.28E+2
6.98E-1
Krydslamineret træ (CLT)
Cross-laminated-timber CLT
12433.6
1.52
1.87E+1
2.28E-3
1.65E+3
2.02E-1
3.13E+3
3.83E-1
3.07E+4
3.75E+0
12.43
1.87E-2
1.65E+0
3.07E+1
3.13E+0
13.06
1.96E-2
1.73E+0
3.22E+1
3.29E+0
Kobberplader
Copper sheet
618.0
0.31
4.96E-3
2.48E-6
3.26E+1
1.63E-2
1.19E+2
5.96E-2
6.14E+2
3.07E-1
Klinker - stentøj
Clinker – stoneware
266.3
2.00
2.55E-3
1.91E-5
1.97E+2
1.48E+0
8.10E+1
6.07E-1
3.47E+3
2.60E+1
PE-folie (dampspærre)
PE film (vapour barrier)
5733.3
4.30
3.46E-2
2.59E-5
8.41E+2
6.30E-1
8.00E+2
6.00E-1
5.52E+3
4.14E+0
8.60
5.19E-5
1.26E+0
8.28E+0
1.20E+0
8.60
5.19E-5
1.26E+0
8.28E+0
1.20E+0
EPDM-folie
EPDM foil
1725.3
0.69
7.54E+1
3.03E-2
2.81E+2
1.13E-1
3.59E+2
1.44E-1
3.23E+3
1.30E+0
12.94
5.66E-1
2.10E+0
2.42E+1
2.69E+0
Keramikfliser
Ceramic tiles
699.0
0.54
1.53E+0
1.17E-3
3.14E+2
2.42E-1
2.11E+2
1.63E-1
1.40E+3
1.08E+0
6.99
1.53E-2
3.14E+0
1.40E+1
2.11E+0
Fibercementplader
Fibre cement boards
91.2
0.08
2.36E+0
2.00E-3
5.40E+0
4.58E-3
2.39E+1
2.03E-2
1.39E+2
1.18E-1
fibergips (papir)
Gypsum fibre board (paper)
28242.0
10.46
1.19E-1
4.40E-5
5.41E+3
2.00E+0
6.42E+3
2.38E+0
8.75E+4
3.24E+1
56.48
2.38E-4
1.08E+1
1.75E+2
1.28E+1
56.48
2.38E-4
1.08E+1
1.75E+2
1.28E+1
Aluminium plade
Aluminium sheet
70.4
1.52
1.02E-3
2.21E-5
1.75E+1
3.78E-1
4.52E+1
9.78E-1
3.19E+2
6.90E+0
16.89
2.45E-4
4.19E+0
7.66E+1
1.09E+1
Stenuld
Stone wool
123.3
3.74
1.95E+5
5.91E+3
1.63E+2
4.95E+0
4.08E+1
1.24E+0
2.55E+2
7.73E+0
19.73
3.12E+4
2.61E+1
4.08E+1
6.53E+0
PUR isolering
PUR insulation
80.4
5.36
2.87E+0
1.91E-1
3.82E+2
2.54E+1
1.00E+1
6.67E-1
1.06E+2
7.09E+0
16.24
5.79E-1
7.71E+1
2.15E+1
2.02E+0
EPS isolering
EPS insulation
60.1
0.52
1.40E-4
1.21E-6
7.81E+0
6.79E-2
1.14E+1
9.90E-2
6.09E+1
5.29E-1
16.40
3.81E-5
2.13E+0
1.66E+1
3.11E+0
Perlite ekspanderet
Expanded perlite
781.4
3.13
1.33E+6
5.33E+3
3.07E+2
1.23E+0
2.20E+2
8.80E-1
1.44E+3
5.76E+0
121.90
2.08E+5
4.79E+1
2.25E+2
3.43E+1
PIR isolering
PIR insulation
6.2
0.15
5.36E+2
1.34E+1
1.88E+0
4.70E-2
2.17E+1
5.43E-1
3.83E+1
9.58E-1
1.60
1.39E+2
4.89E-1
9.96E+0
5.65E+0
Papiruld
Paper wool
19.2
0.50
1.62E-3
4.26E-5
1.08E+1
2.84E-1
6.64E+1
1.75E+0
1.30E+2
3.41E+0
5.46
4.62E-4
3.07E+0
3.70E+1
1.89E+1
Hamp fleece / PE
Hemp fleece / PE
21.6
1.32
1.11E+3
6.75E+1
1.95E+1
1.19E+0
7.84E+1
4.78E+0
4.32E+2
2.64E+1
5.19
2.66E+2
4.67E+0
1.04E+2
1.88E+1
Glasuld
Glass wool
244.2
1.48
3.84E+0
2.33E-2
4.09E+1
2.48E-1
6.42E+1
3.89E-1
5.23E+2
3.17E+0
58.61
9.23E-1
9.82E+0
1.26E+2
1.54E+1
Foamglas
Foam glass
415.6
1.86
2.36E-3
1.06E-5
9.76E+1
4.38E-1
3.25E+2
1.46E+0
1.66E+3
7.45E+0
rude, 3-lags glas
Glass pane, triple-glazed
266.1
1.76
1.37E-3
9.06E-6
6.47E+1
4.28E-1
2.09E+2
1.39E+0
1.07E+3
7.09E+0
rude, 2-lags glas
Glass pane, double-glazed
-649.0
-1.35
5.48E+3
1.14E+1
1.20E+2
2.50E-1
8.00E+1
1.67E-1
7.20E+2
1.50E+0
Krydsfiner
Plywood
528.5
0.29
3.04E-3
1.69E-6
7.99E+1
4.44E-2
8.39E+1
4.66E-2
4.52E+2
2.51E-1
273.97
1.57E-3
4.14E+1
2.34E+2
4.35E+1
57.08
3.28E-4
8.63E+0
4.88E+1
9.06E+0
lermursten (brændte)
Fired clay brick
244.8
0.14
2.77E+0
1.54E-3
4.30E+0
2.39E-3
3.08E+1
1.71E-2
1.61E+2
8.93E-2
126.90
1.44E+0
2.23E+0
8.33E+1
1.60E+1
26.44
2.99E-1
4.65E-1
1.74E+1
3.32E+0
Kalksandsten
Lime sandstone
4.9
0.00
2.41E+0
1.34E-3
-1.35E+1
-7.49E-3
2.43E+1
1.35E-2
1.11E+2
6.17E-2
0.52
2.60E-1
-1.46E+0
1.20E+1
2.62E+0
Genbrugte mursten
Reused brick
180.0
0.48
2.55E+0
6.80E-3
1.96E+1
5.23E-2
2.80E+1
7.47E-2
2.17E+2
5.79E-1
90.77
1.29E+0
9.88E+0
1.09E+2
1.41E+1
Gasbetonblokke
Aerated concrete blocks
93.6
0.04
4.22E-4
1.76E-7
7.41E+0
3.09E-3
9.59E+0
3.99E-3
5.57E+1
2.32E-2
10.11
4.56E-5
8.00E-1
6.02E+0
1.04E+0
Ubrændte lersten
Unfired clay brick
9.3
0.00
3.33E-6
1.66E-9
5.32E+0
2.66E-3
7.35E+0
3.68E-3
3.13E+1
1.56E-2
4.38
1.56E-6
2.49E+0
1.46E+1
3.44E+0
Stampede lervægge
Rammed earth wall
8831.2
1.12
1.54E+4
1.96E+0
3.15E+6
4.02E+2
1.72E+6
2.19E+2
1.70E+7
2.16E+3
72.60
1.26E+2
2.59E+4
1.40E+5
1.41E+4
Konstruktionsstål
Structural steel
-610.0
-1.22
1.41E+4
2.82E+1
3.03E+1
6.06E-2
1.82E+2
3.64E-1
5.55E+2
1.11E+0
-57.51
1.33E+3
2.86E+0
5.23E+1
1.72E+1
Limtræ
Glulam
202.3
0.22
1.30E+2
1.44E-1
2.92E+1
3.25E-2
4.08E+1
4.53E-2
2.99E+2
3.33E-1
41.82
2.69E+1
6.04E+0
6.19E+1
8.44E+0
Letbetonelementer
Lightweight concrete elements
-173.1
-1.10
7.86E+2
4.99E+0
6.77E+1
4.30E-1
6.98E+1
4.43E-1
3.06E+2
1.94E+0
-42.76
1.94E+2
1.67E+1
7.55E+1
1.72E+1
træfiberisolering
Wood fibre insulation
-128.2
-1.28
3.22E+2
3.22E+0
2.23E+0
2.23E-2
1.01E+2
1.01E+0
9.32E+1
9.32E-1
-36.54
9.17E+1
6.37E-1
2.66E+1
2.89E+1
Halm
Straw
96.3
3.01
9.54E-4
2.98E-5
4.46E+1
1.39E+0
1.67E+1
5.23E-1
1.31E+2
4.09E+0
22.54
2.23E-4
1.04E+1
3.06E+1
3.91E+0
XPS isolering
XPS insulation
288.0
0.13
3.35E+3
1.49E+0
1.64E+1
7.27E-3
1.41E+2
6.25E-2
4.43E+2
1.96E-1
35.42
4.12E+2
2.02E+0
5.45E+1
1.73E+1
Beton C30/37
Concrete C30/37
-680.0
-1.49
9.03E+3
1.98E+1
1.94E+1
4.25E-2
5.74E+1
1.26E-1
2.42E+3
5.31E+0
-77.57
1.03E+3
2.21E+0
2.76E+2
6.55E+0
konstruktionstræ
Construction timber
1kg CO2 eq/kg
0kg CO2 eq/kg
10kg CO2 eq/kg
10000kg CO2 eq/m3
1000kg CO2 eq/m3
100kg CO2 eq/m3
0kg CO2 eq/m3
10kg CO2 eq/m3
10kg CO2 eq/FU
100kg CO2 eq/FU
1kg CO2 eq/FU
100kg CO2 eq/FU
10kg CO2 eq/FU
1kg CO2 eq/FU
10kg CO2 eq/FU
1kg CO2 eq/FU
10kg CO2 eq/FU
1kg CO2 eq/FU
100μg R11 eq/kg
10μg R11 eq/kg
1μg R11 eq/kg
1000μg R11 eq/kg
100μg R11 eq/m3
100000μg R11 eq/m3
10000μg R11 eq/m3
1μg R11 eq/m3
1000μg R11 eq/m3
10μg R11 eq/m3
1000000μg R11 eq/m3
10000μg R11 eq/FU
100000μg R11 eq/FU
100μg R11 eq/FU
10μg R11 eq/FU
1μg R11 eq/FU
100μg R11 eq/FU
1000μg R11 eq/FU
10μg R11 eq/FU
10μg R11 eq/FU
100μg R11 eq/FU
1000μg R11 eq/FU
1μg R11 eq/FU
1000μg R11 eq/FU
1g Ethene eq/kg
10g Ethene eq/kg
100g Ethene eq/kg
1000g Ethene eq/m3
100g Ethene eq/m3
10g Ethene eq/m3
1g Ethene eq/m3
1000000g Ethene eq/m3
1μg R11 eq/FU
10μg R11 eq/FU
10μg R11 eq/FU
1μg R11 eq/FU
10000μg R11 eq/FU
1μg R11 eq/FU
10μg R11 eq/FU
1μg R11 eq/FU
10μg R11 eq/FU
1g SO2 eq/kg
10g SO2 eq/kg
1000g SO2 eq/kg
10000g SO2 eq/m3
1000g SO2 eq/m3
100g SO2 eq/m3
10g SO2 eq/m3
10000000g SO2 eq/m3
10μg R11 eq/FU
100μg R11 eq/FU
100μg R11 eq/FU
10μg R11 eq/FU
100000μg R11 eq/FU
10μg R11 eq/FU
1μg R11 eq/FU
100μg R11 eq/FU
10μg R11 eq/FU
100μg R11 eq/FU
1μg R11 eq/FU
1g Phosphate eq/kg
100g Phosphate eq/kg
1000g Phosphate eq/m3
10g Phosphate eq/m3
100g Phosphate eq/m3
10000g Phosphate eq/m3
1g Phosphate eq/m3
1000000g Phosphate eq/m3
10μg R11 eq/FU
1μg R11 eq/FU
10μg R11 eq/FU
1μg R11 eq/FU
10000μg R11 eq/FU
1μg R11 eq/FU
10μg R11 eq/FU
1μg R11 eq/FU
10μg R11 eq/FU
Byg Bedre! - Lav din egen pyramide
Build Better! – Make your own pyramid
vælg materialer i pyramiden (klik) for at medtage dem i beregneren.
Se datagrundlaget for materialerne ved at dobbeltklikke på materialet i pyramiden.
choose materials in the pyramid (click) to include them in the calculator.
See the data used for the materials by double-clicking on the material in the pyramid.
m2
materiale
material
gruppe
group
miljøpåvirkning / m3
impact / m3
volumen [m3]
volume [m3]
areal [m2]
area [m2]
godstykkelse [mm]
thickness [mm]
resulat
result
#
pandeplade
Roof panel (steel)
metal
26578.0 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
maling, mat
Paint, matte
andet
2851.0 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
betontagsten
Concrete roof tiles
mineralsk
366.1 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
Parketgulv, 14mm
Parquet floor, 14 mm
trae
-535.0 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
MDF
MDF
trae
-669.0 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
Poroton-tegl
Poroton bricks
mineralsk
138.0 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
Grantræ
Spruce
trae
-777.5 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
Egetræ
Oak tree
trae
-1063.0 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
modificeret træ
Modified wood
trae
-519.0 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
Tegl, rød, dobbeltbrændt
Brick, red, double-fired
mineralsk
898.2 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
Tegl, rød, enkeltbrændt
Brick, red, single-fired
andet
565.2 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
Beton C20/25
Concrete C20/25
mineralsk
229.0 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
Aluvindue
Aluminium frame window
komponenter
1172.7 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
Trævindue
Wood frame window
komponenter
474.1 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
Træ-Alu vindue
Wood-Aluminium frame window
komponenter
762.6 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
Cementbundet spånplade
Cement-bonded particle board
biobaseret
1694.0 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
Kalkpuds
Lime render
mineralsk
190.6 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
Zink
Zinc
metal
12209.4 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
Vinylgulv (PVC)
Vinyl flooring (PVC)
kunststof
4095.5 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
PP tagmembran (undertag)
PP roofing membrane
kunststof
271.5 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
Træfiberplade
Wood fibre board
biobaseret
-182.9 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
Tagsten Tegl
Brick roof tiles
mineralsk
420.1 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
Tagpap V60
Roofing felt V60
mineralsk
407.8 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
Stål galvaniseret
Galvanised steel
metal
22923.1 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
Skifer
Slate
natursten
1367.3 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
Puds
plaster
mineralsk
375.1 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
Gipsplade
Gypsum board
mineralsk
169.6 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
Linoleum
Linoleum
biobaseret
83.5 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
Lerpuds
Clay plaster
mineralsk
93.2 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
Krydslamineret træ (CLT)
Cross-laminated-timber CLT
trae
-664.0 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
Kobberplader
Copper sheet
metal
12433.6 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
Klinker - stentøj
Clinker – stoneware
mineralsk
618.0 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
PE-folie (dampspærre)
PE film (vapour barrier)
kunststof
266.3 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
EPDM-folie
EPDM foil
kunststof
5733.3 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
Keramikfliser
Ceramic tiles
mineralsk
1725.3 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
Fibercementplader
Fibre cement boards
mineralsk
699.0 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
fibergips (papir)
Gypsum fibre board (paper)
mineralsk
91.2 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
Aluminium plade
Aluminium sheet
metal
28242.0 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
Stenuld
Stone wool
mineralsk
70.4 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
PUR isolering
PUR insulation
kunststof
123.3 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
EPS isolering
EPS insulation
kunststof
80.4 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
Perlite ekspanderet
Expanded perlite
mineralsk
60.1 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
PIR isolering
PIR insulation
kunststof
781.4 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
Papiruld
Paper wool
biobaseret
6.2 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
Hamp fleece / PE
Hemp fleece / PE
biobaseret
19.2 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
Glasuld
Glass wool
mineralsk
21.6 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
Foamglas
Foam glass
mineralsk
244.2 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
rude, 3-lags glas
Glass pane, triple-glazed
komponenter
415.6 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
rude, 2-lags glas
Glass pane, double-glazed
komponenter
266.1 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
Krydsfiner
Plywood
trae
-649.0 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
lermursten (brændte)
Fired clay brick
mineralsk
528.5 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
Kalksandsten
Lime sandstone
mineralsk
244.8 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
Genbrugte mursten
Reused brick
mineralsk
4.9 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
Gasbetonblokke
Aerated concrete blocks
mineralsk
180.0 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
Ubrændte lersten
Unfired clay brick
mineralsk
93.6 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
Stampede lervægge
Rammed earth wall
mineralsk
9.3 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
Konstruktionsstål
Structural steel
metal
8831.2 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
Limtræ
Glulam
trae
-610.0 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
Letbetonelementer
Lightweight concrete elements
mineralsk
202.3 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
træfiberisolering
Wood fibre insulation
biobaseret
-173.1 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
Halm
Straw
biobaseret
-128.2 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
XPS isolering
XPS insulation
kunststof
96.3 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
Beton C30/37
Concrete C30/37
mineralsk
288.0 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
#
konstruktionstræ
Construction timber
trae
-680.0 kg CO2eq/m3
m3
m2
mm
0
kg CO2 eq
Byggeriets Materialepyramide
The Construction Material Pyramid
Ide/ophavsret: CINARK – Center for Industriel Arkitektur, Det Kongelige Akademi – Arkitektur, Design, Konservering
CINARK har alle rettigheder til Byggeriets Materialepyramide - herunder alle ophavsrettigheder.
Billedrettigheder: CINARK v. Julie Zepernick Jensen
Idea/Copyright: CINARK – Centre for Industrialised Architecture, The Royal Danish Academy – Architecture, Design, Conservation
CINARK owns all the rights to the Construction Material Pyramid – including all copyrights.
Image rights: CINARK (Julie Zepernick Jensen)
Projektgruppe:
CINARK v. Anne Beim, Ulrik Stylsvig Madsen, Line Kjær Frederiksen, Julie Zepernick Jensen, Tone Ida Vecht
Kontaktperson: Pelle Munch-Petersen
Vandkunsten v. Jan Schipull Kauschen, Amal El-Khatib, Michael Granby-Larsen, Nanna Larsson
Faglig sparring:
Kristoffer Tejlgaard, Atelier Kristoffer Tejlgaard
Lisa Elfström og Jan Boström, SundaHus (sundhedsrisici)
Støttet af: Boligfonden Kuben
"Byggeriets Materialepyramide" stilles frit til rådighed og brugen heraf er uden ansvar for CINARK/Det Kgl. Akademi og Vandkunsten.
© CINARK/Det Kgl. Akademi og Vandkunsten.
Project group:
CINARK by Anne Beim, Ulrik Stylsvig Madsen, Line Kjær Frederiksen, Julie Zepernick Jensen, Tone Ida Vecht
Contact person: Pelle Munch-Petersen
Vandkunsten Architects by Jan Schipull Kauschen, Amal El-Khatib, Michael Granby-Larsen, Nanna Larsson
Professional sparring:
Kristoffer Tejlgaard, Atelier Kristoffer Tejlgaard
Lisa Elfström and Jan Boström, SundaHus (health risks)
Supported by: Boligfonden Kuben
“The Construction Material Pyramid” is made freely available and its use is without responsibility for CINARK/The Royal Danish Academy and Vandkunsten.
© CINARK/The Royal Danish Academy and Vandkunsten Architects.